МАЛОВІДОМІ СТОРІНКИ БІОГРАФІЇ ІВАНА ЧЕРНЯХОВСЬКОГО

Автор(и)

  • Dan Amir
  • Boris Morozov
  • Aleksander Maslov

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.33099/2707-1383-2020-36-2-89-121

Ключові слова:

Іван Черняховський, військова біографістика, військове мистецтво, просопографія, командні кадри, 3-й Білоруський фронт.

Анотація

Як справедливо зазначають автори, у наявній літературі щодо біографії І.Черняховського вкрай обмеженими є відомості, які стосуються походження, дитинства й юнацтва майбутнього воєначальника. Серед спірних питань – національна приналежність І.Черняховського, адже ще у 1944 р. у зарубіжних джерелах було висунуто версію про його єврейські етнічні ко- ріння. У липні 1944 р. секретар Єврейського антифашистського комітету в Москві С. Епштейн звертався з проханням про з’ясування цього до секрета- ря ЦК ВКП (б) О. С. Щербакова, і отримав спростування.

Між тим, версія про єврейське походження талановитого генерала на- була поширення, зокрема – у контексті процесу підготовки до створення Єврейської держави у Палестині.

Етнічна приналежність І.Черняховського час від часу ставала предметом дискусій. Новий поштовх до деталізації першого періоду його життя дала публікація у 2005 р. добірки з семи документів з Центрального архіву Міністерства оборони Російської Федерації, в яких також містилися різ- ночитання щодо дати народження та інших моментів ранньої біографії. Автори статті наводять характеристики цих документів, зазначаючи, що склалося до десяти варіантів опису раннього періоду біографії Івана Даниловича із суперечливими твердженнями.

Дослідники вдалися до власного архівно-джерельного пошуку, виявили й вивчили відповідні документи у Державному архіві Київської області. Аналіз документів підтверджує православно-слов’янську приналежність І. Черняховського та визначення ним особисто української мови як рідної. У статті наводяться цікаві біографічні подробиці дитячого та юнацького віку воєначальника, пережиті ним поневіряння й становлення особистості.

Посилання

Correspondence among the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR and the Presidents of the United States and the Prime Ministers of Great Britain during the Great Patriotic War of 1941 – 1945, Progress, Moscow, digital reprint 2006, 416 pp. Message No. 408, p. 306.

Boris Gertsnov, ‘The Invisible Institute and Its Co-workers’, (in Russian), Evreiskii Kamerton, Novosti Nedele, 11 July 2002, p. 11.

Zeev Ben-Shlomo, ‘Kiev's Liberator Reburied in Moscow’, The Jewish Chronicle, London, 20 December 1991, p. 3

Salo W. Baron, The Russian Jew under Tsars and Soviets, Macmillan, New York, 1964.

David Abarbanel, ‘Scourge of the Supermen’, Liberal Judaism Journal, August 1944, pp. 20–21.

‘ Stage Wait’, Time Magazine 44(9), (1944).

‘Kishinev Liberated’ (in Hebrew), Davar, (1944), p. 1.

‘Chernyakhovsky Dies of War Wound’, New York Times, 19 February 1945, p. 8.

The Jewish-American writer Maurice Hindus (1891–1969), born in Belarus, served as a war cor- respondent of the New York Herald Tribune in Russia during the Second World War.

‘General Ivan Chernyakhovsky’ (in Hebrew), Davar, 22 Feb. 1945, p. 2.

Isaac Kowalski, A Secret Press in Nazi Europe, The Story of a Jewish United Partisan Organiza- tion, Shengold Publishers, New York, 1978, p. 338.

Shalom Eilati, To Cross the River (in Hebrew), Karmel Publishers, Jerusalem, 1980, p. 222.

Dina E.G. Porat, ‘Beyond the Material – The Life-Story of Aba Kovner’, (in Hebrew), Am-Oved Publishers, Tel Aviv, 2000, p. 200.

Jewish Soldiers in Europe Armies (in Hebrew), Ma'arachot – IDF Publishing House, Tel Aviv, 1967.

Reuben Ainsztein, ‘The War Record of Soviet Jewry’, Jewish Social Studies Journal 28 (1966), pp. 3–24. The above-mentioned quotation appears on p. 10.

Face to Face with the Nazi Enemy (in Hebrew), Association of Disabled Veterans of Fight against Nazism, Tel Aviv, vol. 2, 1967, p. xxiv.

Yekhezkel Kremerman, From Vilna, ‘Jerusalem of Lithuania’ to Haifa, (in Hebrew), Author's edi- tion, Haifa, 1975, pp. 185, 191.

Salo W. Baron, The Russian Jew under Tsars and Soviets, MacMillan, New York, 1976, (2nd printing), pp. 259–260.

Chernyakhovsky, Ivan Danilovich, Encyclopedia Judaica, Vol. 5, MacMillan Inc., New York, 1971, p. 397.

Chernyakhovsky, Ivan Danilovich, (in Hebrew), Judaica Lexicon, Keter House, Jerusalem, p. 278.

For example, on p.65 of Martin McCauley's Who's Who in Russia since 1900 Routledge, London, 1997, we find: ‘Chernyakhovsky, General Ivan Danilovich (1906–1945), most famous Jewish general in the Red Army … ’. The 2004 EnglishWikipedia entry said: ‘Ivan Danilovich Chernyakhovsky, (Cherniak- hovsky), 1906–1945, Russian general, (promoted to field marshal), twice Hero of the Soviet Union, bril- liant commander of the 3rd Byelorussian Front, died from wounds received outside Konigsberg at the age of 39. He was the youngest Front commander in the Red Army. He was Jewish by birth.’ After the 2005 publication of documents about Chernyakhovsky from the Central Archives of the Ministry of Defense (TsAMO) of the Russian Federation the sentence about Chernyakhovsky's Jewish descent was dropped.

Steven L, Ossad,, ‘Russia's General Ivan D. Chernyakhovsky achieved a combat record that is virtually unknown in the West’,WWII History Journal 3 (2004), May 2004.

Jacqueline M. Zaslow, from New York, stated in her Genealogy Homepage (The Generations Network, 2002) that she received this information in 1992 from her great aunt, Raisel's daughter Esther Sokol. According to that information, Raisel, born 1887 in Loyev, was the third child of Moishe and Momsi Chernyakhovsky from Loyev, Ukraine (the first two being Pinchus and Sprny). Momsi was born about 1867 in Loyev, Ukraine and died of cholera during an outbreak when she went to Boslev (Boguslav) to help her daughter to give birth. There was no clarification in this family story for the long time gap between Raisel and Ivan, and more puzzling, for Ivan's patronymic name (Danilovich and not Movshovits or Moiseevich etc.). No documental proofs for the story were mentioned. Correspondence and personal meeting with the Zaslow family did not contribute any further information about the al- leged family tie to the general, and the site has been recently removed.

Sean M. McAteer, 500 Days: The War in Eastern Europe, 1944–1945, Dorrance Publishers, Pitts- burgh, PA, 2009, p. 100.

Sergei Vasil'evich Drigo, Chernyakhovsky (in Russian), Kaliningrad Book Edition, 1964.

Pavel Grigor'evich Kuznetsov, General Chernyakhovsky (in Russian),Voenizdat, Moscow, 1969.

Akram Agzamovich Sharipov, Chernyakhovsky, a Story about a Commander (in Russian), USSR Ministry of Defense Publishing House, Moscow, 1971.

A.A. Sharipov. Cherniajovski. Relato sobre el Estratega, Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1978.;

A.A. Sharipov, General Chernyakhvsky, Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1980.

P.G., Kuznetsov, General Chernyakhovsky, pp. 47–49.

A shortened version of the first edition was published in 1978 by the youth publishing house Molodaia Gvardiia [Young Guard] - A.A. Sharipov, Chernyakhovsky (in Russian), Molodaia Gvardiia, 1978, 303 pp. and in 1980 a second edition of 100,000 copies was published. On the cover of the English translation it says: ‘General Chernyakhovsky’ is a documentary novel … The novel has a strong appeal for its veracity. None of the heroes is fictitious … ’

‘I.D. Chernyakhovsky in the recollections of his contemporaries’ (in Russian), Otechestvennye arkhivy (Fatherland Archives), 2005, no. 2, Moscow, http://www.rusarchives.ru/publication/chernya- hovskiy.shtml

16 June of the old Russian calendar is 29 June according to the present calendar.

TsMVS (Central Museum of the Armed Forces), B-4/62, ll.6–7.

Danilo is the Ukrainian name for the Russian Danila.

TsMVS (Central Museum of the Armed Forces), B-4/62, l.5.

This was, and until now still is, the only official statement disclosing the facts of Chernyak- hovsky's birth, but even in this quoted document there is no archival reference for the mentioned ‘church registration book’. This publication affected some of the more recent Western publications, but certainly not most of them. In Wikipedia, for example, the sentence about Chernyakhovsky's Jewish descent was dropped.

Aleksander Yakovlevich Sukharev, Legendary Chernyakhovsky, (in Russian), Zarnitsa, Mos- cow, 2005.

This is the way I.D. Chernyakhovsky spelled his father's name, but all authors use Danila (Rus- sian) or Danilo (Ukrainian).

Igor Erofeev and Galina Kashtanova-Erofeeva, Ivan Danilovich Chernyakhovsky, 1906 (1907) – 1945, A Short Biographic Chronicle (in Russian), Chernyakhovsk District Municipal Education Admin- istration, 2005.

Oleksandr Phil’, Za krok do marshalskovo zhezla (One Step to the Marshal Scepter) (in Ukrain- ian), Taras Shevchenko University, Kiev, 2005.

Fedor Davidovich Sverdlov, The Unknown about Soviet Commanders (in Russian), Moscow, 1995, p. 87.

Oleksandr Phil’, Za krok do marshalskovo zhezla, pp.10–11.

Vladimir Vasil'evich Karpov, Army-general Chernyakhovsky, (in Russian), Veche, Moscow, 2006 44 V, Karpov himself was arrested already in February 1941 and tried for ‘anti-Soviet agitation’, re- drafted in October to a ‘penal unit,’ where he climbed again from private to lieutenant, and became Hero

of the Soviet Union, though rehabilitated only in 1956.

Vladimir Ottovich Daines, General Chernyakhovsky, Genius of Defence and Attack, (in Russian), Iauza, Moscow, 2007.

Fedor Davidovich Sverdlov, Jewish Generals in the Armed Forces of the USSR, (in Russian), Moscow (with Yad Vashem) 1993. Hebrew translation: Ma'arachot, Tel Aviv, 1996.

Tsvi Raz, (in Russian), Evreiskii Kamerton, Tel Aviv, 31 January 2002.

Igor Akselrod, ‘To Love Jews Is Difficult, but Necessary’, (in Russian), Evreiskii Mir, 25 May 2004.

Aron Cherniak, ‘The Riddle of General Yona Davidovich Chernyakhovsky’, (in Russian), Evre- iskii Kamerton, Tel Aviv, 26 March 2002, p. 24.

Il'ia Erenburg, Liudi, Gody, Zhizn’ (People, Years, Life) (in Russian), book 5, chapter 13 (digital edition),http://militera.lib.ru/memo/russian/erenburg_eg07/index.html

Mark Borisovich Petrushansky, Iz Plemeni Makkaveev (From the Tribe of the Maccabees), (in Russian), Vladikavkaz Regional Center, Vladikavkaz, 2009.

Ilya Mikhailovich Levitas, Jewish Military Encyclopedia (in Russian), Stal’, Kiev, 2007.

Oleksandr Phil’, Ivan Chernyakhovski (in Ukrainian), Kiev, 2006, pp. 161–165.

This is the same Novokhatsky who wrote also two of the seven documents published by the Cen- tral Archive.

TsDAVO Ukraini, F.4620. op. 3, spr. (sprava, file in Ukrainian) 50, ark. (arkush, list in Ukrainian) 6–15.

According to the regulations, approved by the Decree of the Emperor on 5 June 1895.

State Archive of Kiev Region, fond (collection) 384, opis (list of files) 11, delo (file) 55, ll.133– 134–reverse. On the cover of the file it is written: ‘Kievskaia gubernia's Commission regarding the First General Census of Population of 1897.Census Commission of Tarashcha District. Part 3. The lists of the census of population of 1897.Village Bagva, Tarashcha district. private estates on chinshevye (quit- rent) lands. Census Station No. 9, Counting Station No. 6.’ The lists of the census of village Bagva are contained in 3 files — NN 53–55. File 53 is titled as Part 1, file 54 — Part 2 and file 55 — Part 3. Chinsh in Ukrainian (in Polish, czynsz, in German, Zins, meaning percent) is a form of quitrent, which was paid for the piece of land or house lent for a long time, used originally in Poland. Later it brought to the special form of property based on everlasting and hereditary rent. The amount of chinsh couldn't be changed by one of the sides. Historically in the Western areas of Russian Empire there were many villages (places) built on such land. The law of 1886 guaranteed the right of people living on such lands to preserve their status and to pass it to their heirs, unchangeable amount of quit-rent as well as the right to buy these lands from former owners.

List 134-reverse contains the prolongation of an instruction how to fill the census list. It is very

general and not very interesting. Below we just show some of the paragraphs as an example: In the para- graph devoted to religion (11) it is written: ‘Here to write the religious confession, for shortening you can write instead of pravoslavnuiu (Russian Orthodox) - ‘prav.’; edinovercheskuiu (sect dissenters from the Orthodox church) - ‘edinov.’; rimsko-katolicheskuiu (Roman Catholic) - ‘rims.kat.’;liuteranskuiu (Lutheran) - ‘liut.’; reformatskuiu (Reformist) - ‘reform.’; armiano-gregorianskuiu (Armenian-Gregori- an) - ‘arm.grig.’; iudeiskuiu (Judean) - ‘iud.’; musul'mane (Muslim) - ‘musul.’; buddisty (Buddhists) - ‘bud.’; lamaity (Lamaists) - ‘lam.’;shamanstvuiushchie (shamanism) - ‘shamast.’; etc.’ In the paragraph devoted to the mother tongue (12) it is written: ‘Here to write the language which is considered to be mother tongue. For Russian you can write letter ‘R’, for Malorossiiskii (Ukrainian) - ‘MR’, for Belorussian - BR, while for all other languages it must be written in full, for instance, - Polish, French, English, German, Jewish, Tatar, Mordovian, etc.’

The church was in the village Teterovka, so the people of the village Bagva were a part of Teter- ovka's parishioners. In the church metrical books Bagva was specially marked.

State Archive of Cherkassy Region, fond 931, opis 1, delo 2252.

Ibid., fond 931, opis 2, delo 34.

Ibid., fond 931, opis 1, delo 2252, list 204.

Not completely legible — maybe also Podirchuk, Pokhidchuk etc

Ibid., list 193.

We may assume that here the priest just made a mistake because in other existing documents the wife of Daniil Cherniahovsky was mentioned as Maria Lyudvigova (see, for instance, document 4). He probably wrote the patronymic of the godmother by mistake.

This writing is not absolutely clear, so it can be also read as ‘Grigorii Morskoi’.

State Archive of Cherkassy Region, fond 931, opis 1, delo 2252, list 42.

Ibid., fond 931, opis 1, delo 2432 (for the period 1883–1900) and delo 2611 (for the period 1906,

, 1918–1919).

Ibid., fond 931, opis 1, delo 2611, ll. 113–142-reverse (lists for January 1906 are missing).

Ibid., fond 931, opis 1, delo 2611, l.122.

Ibid., fond 931, opis 1, delo 2611, ll.56–57.

The fact that the first name Avraam appears twice in the names of Danil's ‘garantors’ in his wed- ding registration — Avraam Gordeyev Podirchuk and Semion Avraamov Levitsky — does not neces- sarily suggest a Jewish connection. I It seems that in pre-revolution times there were no less non-Jewish Avraams than Jewish, and the same applies even more so to the somewhat Jewish-sounding family name Levitsky.

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